History

GAYO

august 29 2009

ETHNONYMS: Gayo, Gajo, urang Gayó, Gayonese

Orientation

Identification. The Gayo live predominantly in the central highlands of Aceh Province in Sumatra, Indonesia, and are Sunni Muslims. Gayo refer to themselves as “Urang Gayo,” meaning “Gayo people,” primarily on grounds of command of basa Gayo, the Gayo language.

Gayonese Groom with neck and head jewelry./6470
Gayonese Bridegroom and bride with neck and head jewelry./6470

Location. The Gayo homeland lies across the Bukit Barisan Range in Aceh Province, between 40 and 5° N and 96° and 980 E. The range divides the homeland into four plateaus, each with a river system along which Gayo have settled. The largest concentration of settlement is the town of Takengen (Takengon) by Lake Lat tawar. The area gradually declines in elevation from about 1,500 meters in the north to  about 500 meters in the south. Northeast trade winds bring heavy rains in a four-month period between October and  March; the southeast trades can bring a lighter rainfall between April and September.

Demography. The 1980 population of the district of Central Aceh was 163,339, of which about 140,000 were Gayo speakers. In the 1980s about 45,000 Gayo resided in other districts in the Aceh highlands and about 25,000 lived elsewhere in Indonesia, giving a total population of about 210,000 Gayo.

Linguistic Affiliation. The Gayo language belongs to the Western Indonesian Branch of the Austronesian Family and lexically is most closely related to the Batak Subfamily. The presence of Mon-Khmer loanwords suggests early coastal contacts with some Mon-Khmer-language-speaking societies.  The earliest known writing in Gayo used the Jawi script (Arabic letters) but since the 1950s most Gayo have used standard Indonesian orthography. By the 1980s most Gayo had at least minimal competence in the Indonesian language.

History and Cultural Relations

Substantial written references to the Gayo only begin in the late nineteenth century. It is likely, however, that the Gayo homeland belonged to the Islamic kingdom of Aceh in the seventeenth century and that Islamization of the area had begun by that time. At the outbreak of the Aceh-Dutch war
in 1873, Gayo possessed a strong sense of ethnic distinctiveness but recognized a nominal Acehnese suzerainty. Some Gayo continued to resist the Dutch after the invasion of the highlands in 1904. During Dutch occupation (1904-1942) Gayo developed a thriving cash-crop economy in vegetables and coffee, attained a relatively high level of basic education,
and participated in the movements of Islamic modernism and Indonesian nationalism. Gayo fought to maintain Continue reading “GAYO”

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General, Social

Save Gayo language Now

Gayo People must fast to take steps, When Not in 2010 Gayo language estimated be Lost.

Domenyk eades In takengon.Photo-winbathin.multiply
Domenyk eades In takengon.Photo-winbathin.multiply

Takengon-The Gayo language is one of the languages that is used in the Nanggroe Aceh Darussalam province. Although it is spoken in Aceh, the Gayo language is different from the Acehnese language. The Gayo language is used by the minority Gayo inhabitants that live in the central highlands of the province.
“The Gayo language will possibly be lost by 2016”, said M.Jihad, a resident of the Bintang Subdistrict, in a meeting with the writer of gayo grammar, (A grammar of gayo, a language of Aceh, Sumatra) that was written by Dr.Domenyk Eades.BA (Hons) PhD (Melb), Asistent Professor, Lecturer in Linguistic and Translation Studies. College of Arts, Sultan Qaboos University, on Friday night (11/7) in the Bale Pendari Building that was of the Reje Linge Theatre. It was attended by artists, the culture critics, students and the public figures.
M.Jihad based this on the fact that the Gayo community often do not use the Gayo language in everyday communication. They are more likely to use the Indonesian language and are too tolerant to this. Moreover, the role of the Government like the Regional Government and DPRK (Regional Legislative Council for regency) was also not involved in in conserving the gayo language through policy.
Domenyk Eades is Professor’s Assistant in Sultan’s University of Qaboos Oman. He came to Aceh to teach English and to research the Gayo language for his doctorate in linguistics. “Literature of gayo made me interested to studying Gayo language”, he said opposite dozens of participants that night.

Literature in gayo made me interested to studying Gayo language”. Said Domenyk opposite dozens of participants that night. In order to conserve Gayo language, according to Domenyk, at this time must be written the book in the Gayo language and again wrote the fairy tale, the history and the culture from informant that still living, when not wanting the gayo Language lost.
“So many languages have been lost in the world. Would the Gayo language also was like this”, ask Domenyk to Zulfikar Ahmad St, a staff member of Bappeda who accompanied Domenyk.
Back to M.Jihad, who worried the Gayo language loss from languages in the world. According to the Jihad, the Gayo language was assets or the wealth that were rich in the vocabulary. “Gayo language is rich in words”, said M. Jihad, giving an example of one word in Indonesian for sit, but which had three correspondences in Gayo; that is, kunul, tempoh, semile. Moreover, M. Jihad said that before Rasulullah SAW was born, the Gayo language that more was known with the term “peri berabun”.
In the last 10 years Domenyk carried out the research about the Gayo language, and in the meeting discussed the grammar book he wrote on the Gayo language. In discussions this Gayo language, Evidently many students circles and audiences that precisely the difficulty spoke gayo fully and still mixed it with Indonesian. “this is a proof and argument, already many language vocabularies gayo that no longer is used and tended Losed”,M.Jihad explanation. According to Domernyk, since carrying out the research ten years set, has had the Gayo community that no longer would cares the culture, the language and Gayo history because it was considered not useful.

Save Gayo languge Now and Visit Tanoh Gayo 2008
Save Gayo languge Now and Visit Tanoh Gayo 2008

“If the Gayo language was lost, then the Gayonese identity also would losed.Gayo community will lose identification”, stressed Domenyk. So, because the language will be the identity, continued Domenyk the gayo people from now on must teach generation Gayo children to speak Gayo and get a start to teach Gayo culture. “Books in Gayo language could educate children Gayo to not lose identity”, explained Domenyk. Currently, with his book of Domenyk, A grammar of gayo, a language of Aceh, Sumatra, the Gayo language has been studied in an university in Germany in the Linguistic program.
Yusradi Algayoni, one of the best students USU the Sampoerna version that currently completes the Biography of the famous artist gayo, Drs.AR Moese, explained he had gathered 60 book collections about gayo and now was making the language dictionary gayo that was gathered by him numbering 6670 words. Yusradi asked Domenyk to have the grammar of gayo translated into Indonesian. However according to Domenyk, that must be asked for by his permission with the publisher who handled his book. Most of the students and participants who were present feeling embarrassed because of the Gayo language was researched not by the community gayo, but precisely was researched by the outsider like Domenyk.
Zamzam Mubarak, a Gayo student in Jakarta, questioned the origin Gayo language because gayo it was considered had a big civilisation. According to Domenyk, the Gayo language belongs to the Austronesian group. The Gayo language was connected with the Nias language, Mentawai and Batak Language. Iwan Bahgie, the organiser of the meeting with Domenyk stated that the meeting was held in order to conserve the Gayo language. “After receiving information from Zulfikar Ahmad about Domenyk’s presence with his family in Takengon in the holiday, we offered to be facilitators”, said Iwan. Yuhdi Saffuan, the alumnus of the Indonesian University that is currently in Takengon, said, the Deceased, Prof. Yunus Melalatoa, had said in a forum for the Gayo students Indonesia in Yogyakarta on 2002 that Gayo language including one of the languages that will be lost because of being affected by the culture and the outside language.
“According Prof. Yunus Melalatoa, estimated on 2010 Gayo language has to the critical point. Some for example if asking the community’s Gayo children that was in the Village, the Ama term for the call Father, no longer known by children”, said Yuhdi imitated the concern of Prof. Yunus Melalatoa, a Anthropologist UI.
Said by Yuhdi Saffuan, what is forecasted by Prof. Melalatoa currently has been proven. This was based on the fact at this time, continued Yuhdi, basic school children could not have in Takengon spoken Gayo even his parents suggested their children spoke Indonesia everyday so that not embarrassed to socialise with his friend in the school.
“Could imagined several years in the future, the Gayo language no longer popular and no longer was used in Takengon and will be forgotten history”, stressed Yuhdi. After discussions of the grammar gayo book was spread out. The students and the community who were present agreeing to begin discussed and discourse conservation efforts of the Gayo language with what was acknowledged as a kind of “Balai Bahasa Gayo” meaning Hall Gayo language, and the routine carried out discussions about the language. Needed the role of Regional Government at this time to conserve the Gayo language with more strengthened the Gayo language in education. (www.uranggayo.wordpress.com)

This article was translated from http://www.winbathin.multiply.com

by: FG

Art Culture, Social

GaYo Language

GaYo Language

Gayo language (bahasa Gayo) It was the language that said by the Gayo ethnic group in Nanggroe Aceh Darussalam, that was focussed in the Regency aceh Tengah (Central Aceh), Bener Meriah, Gayo Lues and the subdistrict serbejadi in the aceh Timur (East aceh) regency.
The three areas were the core territory of the Gayo ethnic group.This language including the Sunda-Sulawesi language group from the Austronesia language.
The Gayo language was one of the available languages in the Indonesian Archipelago.The existence of this language equally old him with the existence of the Gayo people “urang gayo” That himself in Indonesia.We could not separate the Gayo language from his speaker vice versa.
While the person Gayo was the original ethnic group that lived in Nanggroe Aceh Darussalam.They had the language, the customs and traditions personally that distinguished their identity from other ethnic groups available in Indonesia.The area of their residence was personally mentioned with tanoh Gayo (Gayo land), to be precise was in the middle of the province of Nanggroe Aceh Darussalam, Sumatra, Indonesia.

Available languages in the Indonesian Archipelago entered the Austronesia group (Merrit Ruhlen in the Attraction of the Language Indonesian Archipelago approach 21 century: 27).Whereas the Gayo Language including in the group of the language of Melayo-Polynesia like that was named by Domenyk Eades in his book of A Grammar of Gayo: A Language of Aceh, Sumatra:

“Gayo belongs to the Malayo-Polynesian branch of the Austronesian family of languages. Malayo-Polynesian languages are spoken in Taiwan, the Philippines, mainland South-East Asia, western Indonesia…”(Eades 2005:4)

This language (the Gayo language) was part of the language of Melayo-Polynesia, and dikelompokan in the Austronesia part like that it was mentioned Merrit Ruhlen above.
Specially, was still not known when and periodesasi the development of this language (Gayo).
That was certain, this language had been since this ethnic group occupied this area.
The person Gayo has personally occupied Aceh (Perlak and Pase, the east coast and some north Acehinese coasts) since before masehi (Ibrahim, 2002:1). Continue reading “GaYo Language”

Art Culture, General, History

Gayonese

GaYo People

Gayonese traditional clothes (Kerawang)/Tamanmini.com
Gayonese traditional clothes (Kerawang)

The Gayonese are an ethnic group native to the Indonesian island of Sumatra. Gayo ethnic group was an ethnic group that lived in the plateau in the province of  Aceh.
The Gayo ethnic group lived in three regencies that is the Regency Middle Aceh, Th Regency Bener Meriah and the Gayo Lues Regency.The Gayo ethnic group also lived in several villages in the Regency aceh South-east,The Regency Aceh Tamiang,Nagan Raya,Simpang jernih subdistrict  and in the Serbajadi Subdistrict in the Regency East aceh.
The Gayo ethnic group was religious Islam and they were known obeyed in his religion.

The Gayo ethnic group used the language that was acknowledged as the Basa Gayo.

The Belief

The Gayo ethnic group was religious Islam

The government’s system

The Gayo community lived in small community that was acknowledged as the village. Each village was headed by a person gecik. The collection of several villages was mentioned kemukiman, that was led by stayed. The government’s traditional system took the form of the element of leadership that was mentioned sarak opat, consist of:

Sarakopat
Sarakopat

1. Reje (king)
2. petue (counsellor, mentor, adviser)
3. Imeum (Ieader of communal prayer)
4. Rayat (Pople,citizenry)

In the period now several kemukiman was part of the subdistrict, with elements of leadership consist of: gecik, the representative gecik, imeum, and intelligent that represented the people.

A village is usually occupied by several of the clan’s groups the crack (Belah). Members of a crack felt came from one ancestor, was still knowing each other, and was developing relations continue to in various raditional ceremonies. The line of the descendants was pulled was based on the patrilineal principle. The current marriage system was based on the tradition was crack exogamy, with the tradition resided after being married that patrilokal (juelen) or matriokal (angkap).

The smallest affinity group was mentioned saraine (the nuclear family). Unity of several nuclear families was acknowledged as the kitchen pension. In the past of several kitchen pensions live with in a long house, so as to be acknowledged as the pension House (Umah).Several the long house gathered in one crack (the clan).In the period now many nuclear families that lived in the house personally.In the person’s Gayo past especially developed matapencaharian engaged in farming in the paddy-field and raising, with the complicated livelihood customs and traditions.

Moreover had the gardening inhabitants, caught the fish, and gathered results of the forest. They also developed diligence made the ceramics, plaited, and wove.Currently the dominant livelihood is gardening, especially the coffee crop.Diligence made the ceramics and the cane work had been threatened extinct, but by being made this area as one of the areas of the aim of the tour in Aceh, by him ceramic diligence began to be developed again.Other diligence that also often received attention was diligence made the open-work embroidery with the typical motive.

The livelihood

The main livelihood is farming and gardening with results especially coffee.
They also developed diligence made the ceramics, plaited, and wove.
Other diligence that was enough to receive attention was diligence made the Gayo open-work embroidery, with the typical motive.

Cultural art

An element of the culture that had not been tired in the Gayo social circle was art, that almost had not experienced the standstill in fact tended to develop.
The form of Gayo art that was famous, including the dance saman and art spoke that was mentioned didong.
Apart from for entertainment and recreation, forms of this art had the ritual function, education, information, at the same time as means of maintaining the balance and the social structure of the community.
Besides this had also the form of art Like: Bines dance, Guel Dance, Munalu dance, Sebuku (pepongoten) ,guru didong, and melengkap (speech-making art was based on the tradition), that also not forgotten from the period to sour, because the Gayo ‘s was rich in cultural art.

Gayoland

Gayoland

In all the aspect of the life, the person Gayo had and cultivated several values of the culture as the behaviour reference to achieve the order, discipline, the solidarity, carried royong, and hard-working (munentu).
The experience this value of the culture dipacum by a value that was mentioned bersikemelen, that is the competition that brought about a value of the foundation concerning the self-esteem (mukemel).
These values were realised in various aspects of the life, like in the economic field, art, the affinity, and education.
The source from these values was the Islam religion as well as the local tradition that were followed by all the Gayo community. (uranggayo.wordpress.com)