Art Culture, History

Linge! Bersatulah Gayo

Oleh: Alfazri*

Ada yang terasa janggal dalam kehidupan masyarakat Gayo, bila mereka tidak mengerti siapa diri mereka sebenarnya. Siapa dan bagaimana perjuangan kerajaan Linge, sebuah kerajaan berada di dalam lingkaran hutan yang melahirkan kerajaan terkemuka di Aceh, dengan Aceh Darussalamnya.

Tanpa Linge tidak akan ada kerajaan Aceh Darussalam. Tetapi sayang, sebagian dari rakyat Gayo kurang memaknai bagaimana pendahulunya membangun kebersamaan dalam meraih sebuah karya yang gemilang.

Kiranya tidak salah, kita menggulang kaji bagaimana Linge yang telah mengukir sejarah melahirkan gerenasi tangguh. Lenge, begitu asal kata Linge. Dalam bahasa Gayo, Linge berarti  “suaranya”.

Jauh sebelum kerajaan Aceh Darussalam berdiri, Linge adalah sebuah kerajaan  yang terpisah dan berdiri sendiri. Kerajaan Linge di bawah pimpinan Adi Genali, mampu mengibarkan sayabnya dengan mengirimkan anak kandungnya, Merah Johan untuk menaklukan kerahaan Indraparta di Banda Aceh. Continue reading “Linge! Bersatulah Gayo”

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History

GAYO

august 29 2009

ETHNONYMS: Gayo, Gajo, urang Gayó, Gayonese

Orientation

Identification. The Gayo live predominantly in the central highlands of Aceh Province in Sumatra, Indonesia, and are Sunni Muslims. Gayo refer to themselves as “Urang Gayo,” meaning “Gayo people,” primarily on grounds of command of basa Gayo, the Gayo language.

Gayonese Groom with neck and head jewelry./6470
Gayonese Bridegroom and bride with neck and head jewelry./6470

Location. The Gayo homeland lies across the Bukit Barisan Range in Aceh Province, between 40 and 5° N and 96° and 980 E. The range divides the homeland into four plateaus, each with a river system along which Gayo have settled. The largest concentration of settlement is the town of Takengen (Takengon) by Lake Lat tawar. The area gradually declines in elevation from about 1,500 meters in the north to  about 500 meters in the south. Northeast trade winds bring heavy rains in a four-month period between October and  March; the southeast trades can bring a lighter rainfall between April and September.

Demography. The 1980 population of the district of Central Aceh was 163,339, of which about 140,000 were Gayo speakers. In the 1980s about 45,000 Gayo resided in other districts in the Aceh highlands and about 25,000 lived elsewhere in Indonesia, giving a total population of about 210,000 Gayo.

Linguistic Affiliation. The Gayo language belongs to the Western Indonesian Branch of the Austronesian Family and lexically is most closely related to the Batak Subfamily. The presence of Mon-Khmer loanwords suggests early coastal contacts with some Mon-Khmer-language-speaking societies.  The earliest known writing in Gayo used the Jawi script (Arabic letters) but since the 1950s most Gayo have used standard Indonesian orthography. By the 1980s most Gayo had at least minimal competence in the Indonesian language.

History and Cultural Relations

Substantial written references to the Gayo only begin in the late nineteenth century. It is likely, however, that the Gayo homeland belonged to the Islamic kingdom of Aceh in the seventeenth century and that Islamization of the area had begun by that time. At the outbreak of the Aceh-Dutch war
in 1873, Gayo possessed a strong sense of ethnic distinctiveness but recognized a nominal Acehnese suzerainty. Some Gayo continued to resist the Dutch after the invasion of the highlands in 1904. During Dutch occupation (1904-1942) Gayo developed a thriving cash-crop economy in vegetables and coffee, attained a relatively high level of basic education,
and participated in the movements of Islamic modernism and Indonesian nationalism. Gayo fought to maintain Continue reading “GAYO”

Art Culture, History

Bines Dance

The Story of Bines Dance

Bines, dance art that was born from restraint towards the standards of the life. The restraint was carried out by a girl who was named the Ni Malelang Ode. He was punished until dying.His mother mourned. The lament beginning of the birth Bines dance.

The linge girl with gayo traditional clothes played the movement of the bines dance, One of the dance to welcome the important guests in the cultural Gayonese tradition. Bines dance was shown during the appointment agenda of the seven house (Umah Pitu Ruang) Linge Kings,in the former royal complex of linge,Linge Subdistrict, ACeh tengah (Middle Aceh) Regency.Photo-Serambi/JALIMIN
The linge girls with gayo traditional clothes played the movement of the bines dance, One of the dance to welcome the important guests in the cultural Gayonese tradition. Bines dance was shown during the appointment agenda of the seven house (Umah Pitu Ruang) Linge King's,in the former royal complex of linge,Linge Subdistrict, ACeh Tengah (Middle Aceh) Regency.Photos-Serambi/JALIMIN

According to T Alibasyah Talsya in the Aceh book Kaya Budaya ( rich in Cultural ) (1972) The  bines dance was played by several people of the girls. The story of the beginning of the birth of this dance began with the incident that was full of the disgrace. The disgrace struck the Ni Malelang Ode, that was already done made adultery with a young man.

He was afterwards whipped with the whip punishment, because of could not keep this lashing, the Ani Malelang Ode died and made his mother mourn his trip.The mother of the Ni Malelang Ode, really was stricken, in his sorrow that was covered by the sadness and the embarrassed feeling resulting from the conduct of his child, the mother mourned and asked for compassion in front of the crowd while going a step for the sake of a step surrounded his child’s body.The sadness the mother made people around it be touched, then one by one the relative, the neighbours as well as people who took part in being sad in the place. They continued to follow the mother mourned while surrounding the body of the Ni Malelang Ode. According to Talsya, the mother’s lament when surrounding the body of the Ni Malelang Ode the beginning of birth Bines dance. Continue reading “Bines Dance”

History, Tourism

Putri Pukes Cave

A Brides Became Stone
A Brides Became Stone/Fajriboy.wordpress.com

According to the Story of the Community’s legend of Gayo Inen mayak in English Brides.The daughter Pukes Previously a woman who changed to the stone because of being married in a male manner foreign and did not want to follow the order her mother.Her mother instructed after marrying should not gaze at Back, because of the daughter Pukes gaze at back finally changed to the Stone, the Husband’s Cemetery off the daughter’s Pukes Cave around 1 Km Climbing. Continue reading “Putri Pukes Cave”

History

Linge Kingdom

This Stamp Was Found In Lukup Serbejadi Aceh Timur Regency
This Stamp Was Found In Lukup Serbejadi Aceh Timur Regency/winbathin.blogspot

The Lingga kingdom or Linge (in the gayo language ) in the Gayo land, according to M. Junus Djamil in his book of the “Gajah Putih” (White Elephant) that was published by the Cultural Aceh Agency during 1959, Kutaraja (Banda Aceh), said that around in the 11th age , the Lingga Kingdom was established by Gayo people in Sultan’s government’s era of Machudum Johan Berdaulat Mahmud Shah from the Perlak Kingdom.

This information was known from information of King Uyem and his child King Ranta that is King Cik Bebesan and from Zainuddin that is from the kings Kejurun Bukit that both of them had had the power as the king in the colonial Dutch era.

King Lingga I,  it was mentioned had 4 children.
It was eldest that a woman was named Empu Beru or Datu Beru, that was other Be As Sibayak Lingga, Meurah Johan and  and Meurah Lingga.

Sibayak Lingga afterwards left home to the Batak land his ancestors to be precise in Karo and opened the country there he was known with King Lingga Sibayak. Continue reading “Linge Kingdom”

Art Culture, General, History

Gayonese

GaYo People

Gayonese traditional clothes (Kerawang)/Tamanmini.com
Gayonese traditional clothes (Kerawang)

The Gayonese are an ethnic group native to the Indonesian island of Sumatra. Gayo ethnic group was an ethnic group that lived in the plateau in the province of  Aceh.
The Gayo ethnic group lived in three regencies that is the Regency Middle Aceh, Th Regency Bener Meriah and the Gayo Lues Regency.The Gayo ethnic group also lived in several villages in the Regency aceh South-east,The Regency Aceh Tamiang,Nagan Raya,Simpang jernih subdistrict  and in the Serbajadi Subdistrict in the Regency East aceh.
The Gayo ethnic group was religious Islam and they were known obeyed in his religion.

The Gayo ethnic group used the language that was acknowledged as the Basa Gayo.

The Belief

The Gayo ethnic group was religious Islam

The government’s system

The Gayo community lived in small community that was acknowledged as the village. Each village was headed by a person gecik. The collection of several villages was mentioned kemukiman, that was led by stayed. The government’s traditional system took the form of the element of leadership that was mentioned sarak opat, consist of:

Sarakopat
Sarakopat

1. Reje (king)
2. petue (counsellor, mentor, adviser)
3. Imeum (Ieader of communal prayer)
4. Rayat (Pople,citizenry)

In the period now several kemukiman was part of the subdistrict, with elements of leadership consist of: gecik, the representative gecik, imeum, and intelligent that represented the people.

A village is usually occupied by several of the clan’s groups the crack (Belah). Members of a crack felt came from one ancestor, was still knowing each other, and was developing relations continue to in various raditional ceremonies. The line of the descendants was pulled was based on the patrilineal principle. The current marriage system was based on the tradition was crack exogamy, with the tradition resided after being married that patrilokal (juelen) or matriokal (angkap).

The smallest affinity group was mentioned saraine (the nuclear family). Unity of several nuclear families was acknowledged as the kitchen pension. In the past of several kitchen pensions live with in a long house, so as to be acknowledged as the pension House (Umah).Several the long house gathered in one crack (the clan).In the period now many nuclear families that lived in the house personally.In the person’s Gayo past especially developed matapencaharian engaged in farming in the paddy-field and raising, with the complicated livelihood customs and traditions.

Moreover had the gardening inhabitants, caught the fish, and gathered results of the forest. They also developed diligence made the ceramics, plaited, and wove.Currently the dominant livelihood is gardening, especially the coffee crop.Diligence made the ceramics and the cane work had been threatened extinct, but by being made this area as one of the areas of the aim of the tour in Aceh, by him ceramic diligence began to be developed again.Other diligence that also often received attention was diligence made the open-work embroidery with the typical motive.

The livelihood

The main livelihood is farming and gardening with results especially coffee.
They also developed diligence made the ceramics, plaited, and wove.
Other diligence that was enough to receive attention was diligence made the Gayo open-work embroidery, with the typical motive.

Cultural art

An element of the culture that had not been tired in the Gayo social circle was art, that almost had not experienced the standstill in fact tended to develop.
The form of Gayo art that was famous, including the dance saman and art spoke that was mentioned didong.
Apart from for entertainment and recreation, forms of this art had the ritual function, education, information, at the same time as means of maintaining the balance and the social structure of the community.
Besides this had also the form of art Like: Bines dance, Guel Dance, Munalu dance, Sebuku (pepongoten) ,guru didong, and melengkap (speech-making art was based on the tradition), that also not forgotten from the period to sour, because the Gayo ‘s was rich in cultural art.

Gayoland

Gayoland

In all the aspect of the life, the person Gayo had and cultivated several values of the culture as the behaviour reference to achieve the order, discipline, the solidarity, carried royong, and hard-working (munentu).
The experience this value of the culture dipacum by a value that was mentioned bersikemelen, that is the competition that brought about a value of the foundation concerning the self-esteem (mukemel).
These values were realised in various aspects of the life, like in the economic field, art, the affinity, and education.
The source from these values was the Islam religion as well as the local tradition that were followed by all the Gayo community. (uranggayo.wordpress.com)