Gayo language (bahasa Gayo) It was the language that said by the Gayo ethnic group in Nanggroe Aceh Darussalam, that was focussed in the Regency aceh Tengah (Central Aceh), Bener Meriah, Gayo Lues and the subdistrict serbejadi in the aceh Timur (East aceh) regency.
The three areas were the core territory of the Gayo ethnic group.This language including the Sunda-Sulawesi language group from the Austronesia language.
The Gayo language was one of the available languages in the Indonesian Archipelago.The existence of this language equally old him with the existence of the Gayo people “urang gayo” That himself in Indonesia.We could not separate the Gayo language from his speaker vice versa.
While the person Gayo was the original ethnic group that lived in Nanggroe Aceh Darussalam.They had the language, the customs and traditions personally that distinguished their identity from other ethnic groups available in Indonesia.The area of their residence was personally mentioned with tanoh Gayo (Gayo land), to be precise was in the middle of the province of Nanggroe Aceh Darussalam, Sumatra, Indonesia.
Available languages in the Indonesian Archipelago entered the Austronesia group (Merrit Ruhlen in the Attraction of the Language Indonesian Archipelago approach 21 century: 27).Whereas the Gayo Language including in the group of the language of Melayo-Polynesia like that was named by Domenyk Eades in his book of A Grammar of Gayo: A Language of Aceh, Sumatra:
“Gayo belongs to the Malayo-Polynesian branch of the Austronesian family of languages. Malayo-Polynesian languages are spoken in Taiwan, the Philippines, mainland South-East Asia, western Indonesia…”(Eades 2005:4)
This language (the Gayo language) was part of the language of Melayo-Polynesia, and dikelompokan in the Austronesia part like that it was mentioned Merrit Ruhlen above.
Specially, was still not known when and periodesasi the development of this language (Gayo).
That was certain, this language had been since this ethnic group occupied this area.
The person Gayo has personally occupied Aceh (Perlak and Pase, the east coast and some north Acehinese coasts) since before masehi (Ibrahim, 2002:1).
To investigate the history of the formation of the beginning and periodesasi this language, was needed by the comprehensive study by involving various discipline of knowledge especially historic linguistics, comparative linguistics and sosio-linguistics to know the matter above definitely.
The development of this language afterwards was not free from the spread of the Gayo person to several groups that is Gayo Lut (around the Lut Tawar lake including the Bener Meriah regency), Gayo Deret that is the Linge area and surrounding area (still was the part of the regency territory ACeh Tengah meaning Middle Aceh), Gayo Lukup/Serbejadi (the regency aceh Timur Meaning East Aceh), Gayo Kalul (The Regency Aceh Tamiang), Gayo Lues (the regency of Gayo Lues and several subdistricts in Aceh Tenggara Meaning South-east), also a small part were met in Aceh Selatan (South aceh) Regency.
The economic factor became the main motivation this spread, like that was explained in the Gayo traditional language, “ari kena nyanya ngenaken temas, ari kena empet ngenaken lues.” Meaning that, was caused because of the not better life, (so as) tried to better, because narrow (the agricultural land, the plantation, etc) tried to wider.
The occurrence of this spread took part in influencing the namings of the Gayo ethnic group, the dialect variation and the vocabulary that were had by them.Gayo Lokop or Serbejadi for example, was the name of an available subdistrict in the regency Aceh Timur.Even so his matter with Gayo Kalul and Gayo Lues, the Gayo community that was their respective was in the Tamiang river upstream, Pulo Tige (the regency Aceh Tamiang) and the regency of Gayo Lues including several subdistricts in the regency Aceh Tenggara.This naming depicted the area of the new dwelling that was inhabited by them.Gayo people in the Bener Meriah regency still was a part of Gayo Lut (Takengon), that several years ago, the Bener Meriah regency blossomed from the regency Aceh Tengah.Now, Gayo community in Aceh Selatan not show the difference of the name like in another place.
The Gayo language dialect
One of the impacts of Spreading that happened that is the existence of the dialect variation in the Gayo language.Nevertheless, this difference did not affect the Gayo language speaker in communicating to one another.The influence from outside that is the language apart from the Gayo language took part in influencing this dialect variation.This difference not only in the aspect fonologi but also in the vocabulary that was used.However, to that was second (the vocabulary) not show the so big influence.
For example, the Gayo language available in Lokop, seldom was different from the Gayo language available in Gayo Kalul, Gayo Lut, Linge and Gayo Lues.This matter was caused because of the influence of the Aceh language that was more dominant in Aceh Timur.Even so his matter with Gayo Kalul, in Aceh Tamiang, more or less was met by the Malay influence because closer to North Sumatra.Afterwards, Gayo Lues was more affected by the Foundation language and the Karo language because of the interaction that more in a second manner this ethnic group particularly the Gayo community available in the Regency aceh Tenggara.
In the matter of the available dialect to the Gayo ethnic group, M.J. Melalatoa divided the Gayo Lut dialect consisted of the Gayo Lut sub-dialect and Deret; whereas the Bukit and Cik was sub-the sub-dialect.
Likewise with the dialect of Gayo Lues consisted of the sub-dialect of Gayo Lues and Serbejadi.
The Serbejadi sub-dialect personally covered sub-sub the Serbejadi dialect and Lukup (1981:53).
While Baihaqi Ak., and Cs, al mentioned the number of Gayo language dialects in accordance with the spread of this Gayo ethnic group (Gayo Lut, Deret, Gayo Lues, Lokop/Serbejadi and Kalul).Nevertheless, the dialect of Gayo Lues, Gayo Lut, Gayo Lukup/Serbejadi and Gayo Deret could be said same or very close.In Gayo Lut personally was gotten by two dialects that there was named the Bukit dialect and Cik (1981:1).
In the Gayo language, we also knew the level of politeness that ditunjukan with said (called someone) with the different call.This matter menunjukan etiquette, good manners, respect, the appreciation and the affection.
To parents, for example, will have said that was different from children.Could be demonstrated by us, the use co and the camp, that both of them meant you (you) the normal Call was used from parents and/or older to that was younger, was the reverse, was felt awkward or not polite when that young used these words to the older person.Camp words were personally politer compared with co.Moreover, this camp show the ordinary meaning and the intimate call between the husband and wife.In addition also, the Gayo Lut language was considered more polite and soft compared with the other Gayo language.
The function of the use
In the everyday association interpersonal Gayo, this language functioned as the communications equipment.
Although being gotten by the existence of the difference of the dialect and the vocabulary in the Gayo language like that was named beforehand (Gayo Lut, Gayo Deret, Gayo Lues, Lokop and Kalul), but this difference did not become the problem that was significant in the process of communication between the Gayo language speaker.The difference of the dialect and the vocabulary this became his rich reflection the content of the Gayo language.Secondly, this language functioned as the escort’s language especially in the period of the Islam spreading of the beginning and in the world of education.
Could be seen by us in saman, didong and some oral Gayo literature other.Therefore, the process peyampaian became more effective and was easy to be understood by the community.In the Takengon city personally, that the multi-ethnic group and multicultural, Indonesian was used as the escort’s language to communicate.
Thirdly, as the identity; through the language, we could know the identity, the identity and the other nation culture, even so his matter with the Gayo language.In the long run, the existence of the language made his speaker to be proud of ownership of the relevant language.Was like this his matter for the person Gayo, the Gayo language became special pride fo his speakers. (uranggayo.wordpress.com)